The Kinetis KL02 is a fully working ARM microprocessor system on a chip which the chip-maker say is swallowable.
If they can make a microprocessor system 2 mm square then I assume adding sensors to match this size should not be a problem, so suddenly seeing what’s going on inside you takes on a new meaning. Instead of an endoscope probe fed down your oesophagus just swallow a KL02 ‘pill’ with built in micro-cameras and light and see what’s happening (possibly on your mobile phone!) as it goes down.
Have sensors on it (processor controlled) looking for specific conditions. If the data’s being relayed back in real time, then the possibility of re-programming the processor as things are happening, giving the ability to fine-tune its investigation activities to suit that specific situation.
Design it to stick to the stomach wall and then have it release medicines only when it detects certain body conditions.
Internal body monitoring without having to carry out any intrusive actions that may require sedation or even surgery, and in the end it just gets passed out through natural body functions.
If this turns out successful, then like so many things that involve computing activities, its uses really would be limited only by imagination of its users.